Firenze (Florence) is a medieval city that still has the charm of the renaissance. Firenze is divided down the middle of the city by the Arno River. The North of the river is more touristy, with the majority of the museums, monuments, and a whole lot of history: Ponte Vecchi, Centro Storico, and the Uffizi. The Uffizi has a ridiculous collection of Renaissance and Mannerist art, so make sure to grab yourself a glass hot cocoa from artisan chocolatier at Rivoire beforehand. Duomo and San Marco are also north. The south of the river, "Oltrarno" is packed with artisan shops and local charm. Santa Maria Novella and Via Tornabuoni is west, Santa Croce is east. Uber is non-existent in Firenze and Taxi's cannot be hailed on the streets, so you need to either queue in a taxi rank or call a taxi, but Firenze is an entirely walkable city. Many of the streets in Firenze have cobblestone, so you will want to leave your heels at home and bring comfortable walking shoes. I prefer to bring my Ked's white sneakers, a pair of wedges, and mules.
Cafe/ Espresso is a single shot, Doppio is a double shot, Americano is a long black. Gratuity is usually included at restaurants, but it's polite to leave an additional 5%. Here is the AirBnB that I booked, which was very central (and rather easy to get to from the train station) and very chic.